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A Companion to Roman structure presents a complete assessment of the severe concerns and ways that experience reworked scholarly knowing in contemporary a long time in a single easy-to-reference volume.
- Offers a cross-disciplinary method of Roman structure, spanning know-how, background, artwork, politics, and archaeology
- Brings jointly contributions by way of major students in architectural history
- An crucial advisor to contemporary scholarship, protecting new archaeological discoveries, lesser recognized constructions, new applied sciences and area and construction
- Includes broad, updated bibliography and word list of key Roman architectural terms
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Extra resources for A Companion to Roman Architecture
2. nine. 14). four. fabrics via style: Brick and Tile In Rome, bricks have been produced in 3 normal sq. sizes: bessalis (2∕3 Roman foot), sesquipedalis (1 half feet), and bipedalis (2 ft) (Lugli 1957: 546, ninety seven; Blake 1959: 162; Adam 1994a: 147). the bigger bricks have been usually lower into triangular items to be used as wall dealing with on a middle of opus caementicium. partitions of strong brick have been infrequent (see part 17). sometimes, a process bipedales ran throughout the wall, often at major issues within the building, comparable to the place scaffolding was once connected, joists have been hung, or arches sprang (DeLaine 1997: 143–145). The standardization of brick sizes usually led to corresponding wall thicknesses of two ft, 2 0.5 toes, three toes, etc. The bricks in Rome occasionally bore stamps, which regularly had the identify of the landlord (senatorial classification) of the brickyard or clay beds and the individual (usually slave or freedman) chargeable for the workshop making the brick (see bankruptcy 10). Roman bricks are a lot thinner than smooth ones, often various among 2. five and four. 9 cm thick counting on the kind of brick and the date. The ratio of brick to mortar replaced through the years. the best brick dealing with, with particularly skinny (ca. 1-cm), raked mortar joints, is located within the overdue first and moment centuries CE in Rome while later partitions are inclined to have thick mortar joints frequently as large because the bricks themselves (Figure 9. 4). The thinner and wider kind of the bricks used to be most likely selected to facilitate the drying method in order that cracking used to be much less more likely to happen. Vitruvius (De Arch. 2. three. 2) refers back to the challenge whilst he recommends that bricks be made in spring and fall in order to not dry too quick in the summertime warmth. he's discussing sun-dried brick, however the similar suggestion applies to kiln-baked brick simply because that they had to be completely dried prior to firing. To wrestle the matter of shrinkage and cracking, the clay used to be frequently combined with a tempering agent, which for fired brick in Rome used to be often a few kind of mineral agent reminiscent of sand or pozzolana. The clay was once shaped right into a brick inside of a wood body, then carried to a drying ground the place the body used to be got rid of and the bricks left to dry for probably 3 to 4 weeks fabrics and strategies 171 (Bianchi 2004: 274–275). Examples of bricks nonetheless passed over to dry were excavated at Llafranc, Spain (DeLaine 1997: 114–118). The dried bricks may then be fired in a kiln at a temperature round 800 ° C (Adam 1994a: 63), notwithstanding diversifications from six hundred° to 950° were documented (Bianchi 2004: 280–281; iciness 2009: 524–525). more often than not, roof tiles have been fired on the excessive finish to make sure impermeability. The stamps on bricks from Rome were present in constructions in North Africa (Wilson 2001), Sardinia (Wilson 1980–1981: 228), and southern France (Rico 1995), revealing that they have been occasionally even exported in a foreign country. on the whole, although, bricks have been produced in the neighborhood in different elements of the Empire (Dodge 1987). In Greece and Asia Minor the bricks have been both sq. or oblong, and any modular dimensions tended to be utilized in simple terms at an area point.