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7 Cloud Processing of Aerosols 794 17. 7. 1 Nucleation Scavenging of Aerosols by way of Clouds 794 17. 7. 2 Chemical Composition of Cloud Droplets 795 17. 7. three Nonraining Cloud results on Aerosol Concentrations 797 17. 7. four Interstitial Aerosol Scavenging through Cloud Droplets 803 17. 7. five Aerosol Nucleation close to Clouds 804 17. eight other kinds of Water within the surroundings 805 17. eight. 1 Ice Clouds 805 17. eight. 2 Rain 809 Appendix 17 prolonged Köhler idea 812 17. A. 1 transformed type of Köhler concept for a Soluble hint gasoline 813 17. A. 2 converted type of the Köhler thought for a marginally Soluble Substance 816 17. A. three changed type of the Köhler idea for a Surface-Active Solute 818 17. A. four Examples 818 difficulties 822 References 823 18 Atmospheric Diffusion 18. 1 18. 2 18. three 18. four Eulerian procedure 828 Lagrangian method 831 comparability of Eulerian and Lagrangian methods Equations Governing the suggest focus of Species in Turbulence 833 18. four. 1 Eulerian methods 833 18. four. 2 Lagrangian techniques 834 18. five resolution of the Atmospheric Diffusion Equation for an immediate resource 837 18. 6 suggest focus from non-stop resources 838 18. 6. 1 Lagrangian procedure 838 828 832 xxiv CONTENTS 18. 6. 2 Eulerian procedure 843 18. 6. three precis of continuing aspect resource options 844 18. 7 Statistical idea of Turbulent Diffusion 845 18. 7. 1 Qualitative good points of Atmospheric Diffusion 845 18. 7. 2 movement of a unmarried Particle Relative to a hard and fast Axis 847 18. eight precis of Atmospheric Diffusion Theories 851 18. nine Analytical recommendations for Atmospheric Diffusion: The Gaussian Plume Equation and Others 852 18. nine. 1 Gaussian focus Distributions 852 18. nine. 2 Derivation of the Gaussian Plume Equation as an answer of the Atmospheric Diffusion Equation 854 18. nine. three precis of Gaussian element resource Diffusion formulation 859 18. 10 Dispersion Parameters in Gaussian types 859 18. 10. 1 Correlations for σy and σz in keeping with Similarity idea 862 18. 10. 2 Correlations for σy and σZ in accordance with Pasquill balance periods 864 18. eleven Plume upward push 867 18. 12 sensible kinds of suggest Windspeed and Eddy Diffusivities 869 18. 12. 1 suggest Windspeed 869 18. 12. 2 Vertical Eddy Diffusion Coefficient Kzz 869 18. 12. three Horizontal Eddy Diffusion Coefficients Kxx and Kyy 873 18. thirteen recommendations of the Steady-State Atmospheric Diffusion Equation 873 18. thirteen. 1 Diffusion from some extent resource 874 18. thirteen. 2 Diffusion from a Line resource 875 Appendix 18. 1 additional ideas of Atmospheric Diffusion difficulties 878 18. A. 1 resolution of (18. 29)-(18. 31) 878 18. A. 2 resolution of (18. 50) and (18. fifty one) 880 18. A. three resolution of (18. 59)-(18. sixty one) 881 Appendix 18. 2 Analytical homes of the Gaussian Plume Equation 882 difficulties 886 References 896 900 19 Dry Deposition 19. 1 19. 2 19. three 19. four Deposition pace 900 Resistance version for Dry Deposition Aerodynamic Resistance 906 Quasi-Laminar Resistance 907 19. four. 1 Gases 908 19. four. 2 debris 908 902 CONTENTS xxv 19. five floor Resistance 911 19. five. 1 floor Resistance for Dry Deposition of Gases to Water 914 19. five. 2 floor Resistance for Dry Deposition of Gases to crops 918 19.

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