Download E-books Did Muhammad Exist?: An Inquiry Into Islam's Obscure Origins PDF

By Robert Spencer

Everything you suggestion you knew approximately Islam is set to change
This wonderful publication uncovers provocative proof that forces us to invite: Did Muhammad, Islam’s founding prophet, even exist?
it's a query that few have thought—or dared—to ask. however the commonly approved tale of Islam’s origins starts off to disintegrate on shut examination.
In Did Muhammad Exist? bestselling writer Robert Spencer brings to early Islam a similar point of probing old feedback students have lengthy utilized to Christianity and Judaism. Meticulously analyzing historic files, archaeological findings, and pioneering new scholarship, Spencer demanding situations the main basic assumptions approximately Islam’s origins—raising questions with profound implications for our global today.

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The time period is derived from Greek sigillon, which means an “imperial edict. ” Jeffery notes that the 1st Arabic use seems to be during this very passage of the Qur'an. 30 both difficult is the time period Allahu as-samad, that's present in Qur'an 112:2. Mainstream twentieth-century Muslim translators of the Qur'an render this time period alternately as “God, the eternal safe haven” (Arberry), “Allah, the everlasting, Absolute” (Abdullah Yusuf Ali), and “Allah, the forever Besought of all! ” (Pickthall). yet not anyone is certain what as-samad particularly potential; it really is one other Qur'anic nonce note that has questioned students throughout the a while. it's ordinarily translated as “eternal,” yet that could be a subject of conference greater than of any genuine discernment of its which means. Tabari bargains numerous meanings for the notice, together with “the one that isn't hole, who doesn't consume and drink,” and “the one from whom not anything comes out,” the latter being a well-recognized Qur'anic designation of Allah because the person who doesn't beget and isn't begotten. 31 After studying the to be had proof, the Yale philologist and historian Franz Rosenthal concludes that as-samad could be “an historic Northwest Semitic spiritual time period, which can now not were appropriately understood by way of Muhammad himself”32—or via whoever truly compiled the Qur'an. one other mysterious Qur'anic notice is al-kawthar, the identify of sura 108. the 1st verse of that sura is “Lo! now we have given thee al-kawthar”; the observe, unknown outdoors of this word, is usually rendered as “abundance,” “bounty,” or “plenty. ” yet this, too, is an issue of conference. the preferred Qur'an statement often called the Tafsir al-Jalalayn explains that “Kawthar is a river within the backyard from which the Basin of his neighborhood is watered. Kawthar skill huge stable, within the type of Prophethood, Qur'an, intercession and different issues. ”33 different Muslim students, notwithstanding, usually are not so yes. The Qur'anic student al-Qurtubi (d. 1273) deals seventeen varied interpretations of al-kawthar; al-Qurtubi's modern Ibn an-Naqib (d. 1298) deals twenty-six. 34 The multiplicity of motives testifies to the truth that nobody fairly knew what the be aware intended in any respect; everybody was once easily hazarding his most sensible wager. there's additionally an abundance of non-Arabic phrases during this such a lot self-consciously Arabic booklet. Many Islamic exegetes have understood that the Qur'an includes no non-Arabic phrases in any respect, because the Qur'an is in “Arabic, natural and transparent” (16:103), and Allah has defined that he don't have “sent this as a Qur'an in a language except Arabic” (41:44). 35 The well known Islamic jurist ash-Shafii, for example, argues that “the e-book of God is within the Arabic language with out being combined with any (foreign words). ”36 but this place is very unlikely to maintain. As either Muslim and non-Muslim students have famous, the Qur'an is filled with non-Arabic loanwords. A Syriac non secular Universe because the Qur'an usually retells biblical tales and refers to biblical prophets, one may count on the Qur'anic names for these prophets to learn by means of Hebrew utilization.

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