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By Bart D. Ehrman
For nearly 1,500 years, the recent testomony manuscripts have been copied through hand––and blunders and intentional adjustments abound within the competing manuscript models. non secular and biblical student Bart Ehrman makes the provocative case that a lot of our commonly held ideals in regards to the divinity of Jesus, the Trinity, and the divine origins of the Bible itself are the result of either intentional and unintended changes through scribes.
during this compelling and engaging booklet, Ehrman exhibits the place and why alterations have been made in our earliest surviving manuscripts, explaining for the 1st time how the various diversifications of our loved biblical tales got here to be, and why in basic terms yes models of the tales qualify for e-book within the Bibles we learn this day. Ehrman frames his account with own reflections on how his research of the Greek manuscripts made him abandon his as soon as ultra–conservative perspectives of the Bible.
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Additional info for Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why
It is striking to realize that the same correction occurred in four of our other early manu scripts of 1 Timothy, all of which have had correctors change the text in the same way, so that it now explicitly calls Jesus "God. " This be came the text of the vast majority of later Byzantine (i. e. , medieval) manuscripts—and then became the text of most of the early English translations. Our earliest and most sensible manuscripts, however, communicate of Christ "who" was made manifest in the flesh, without calling Jesus, explic itly, God. The swap that got here to dominate the medieval manu scripts, then, was made in order to emphasize Jesus's divinity in a text that was ambiguous about it, at best. This would be an example of an 158 MISQUOTING JESUS antiadoptionistic change, a textual alteration made to counter a claim that Jesus was fully human but not himself divine. Other antiadoptionistic changes took place in the manuscripts that record Jesus's early life in the Gospel of Luke. In one place we are told that when Joseph and Mary took Jesus to the Temple and the holy man Simeon blessed him, "his father and mother were marveling at what was said to him" (Luke 2:33). His father? How could the text call Joseph Jesus's father if Jesus had been born of a virgin? Not sur prisingly, a large number of scribes changed the text to eliminate the potential problem, by saying "Joseph and his mother were marvel ing. . . . " Now the text could not be used by an adoptionist Christian in support of the claim that Joseph was the child's father. A similar phenomenon happens a few verses later in the account of Jesus as a twelveyearold in the Temple. The story line is familiar: Joseph, Mary, and Jesus attend a festival in Jerusalem, but then when the rest of the family heads home in the caravan, Jesus remains behind, unbeknownst to them. As the textual content says, "his mom and dad did now not be aware of about it. " But why does the text speak of his mom and dad when Joseph is not really his father? A number of textual witnesses "correct" the problem by having the text read, "Joseph and his mother did not know it. " And again, some verses later, after they return to Jerusalem to hunt excessive and low for Jesus, Mary finds him, three days later, in the Temple. She upbraids him: "Your father and I have been looking for you! " Once again, some scribes solved the problem—this time by simply altering the text to read "We have been looking for you! " One of the most intriguing antiadoptionist variants among our manu scripts occurs just where one might expect it, in an account of Jesus's baptism by John, the point at which many adoptionists insisted Jesus had been chosen by God to be his adopted son. In Luke's Gospel, as in Mark, while Jesus is baptized, the heavens open up, the Spirit de scends upon Jesus in the shape of a dove, and a voice comes from heaven. But the manuscripts of Luke's Gospel are divided concerning what exactly the voice said.