Download E-books Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why PDF

By Bart D. Ehrman

For nearly 1,500 years, the recent testomony manuscripts have been copied through hand––and blunders and intentional adjustments abound within the competing manuscript models. non secular and biblical student Bart Ehrman makes the provocative case that a lot of our commonly held ideals in regards to the divinity of Jesus, the Trinity, and the divine origins of the Bible itself are the result of either intentional and unintended changes through scribes.

during this compelling and engaging booklet, Ehrman exhibits the place and why alterations have been made in our earliest surviving manuscripts, explaining for the 1st time how the various diversifications of our loved biblical tales got here to be, and why in basic terms yes models of the tales qualify for e-book within the Bibles we learn this day. Ehrman frames his account with own reflections on how his research of the Greek manuscripts made him abandon his as soon as ultra–conservative perspectives of the Bible.

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It is striking to realize  that  the same  correction  occurred in  four of  our other early  manu­  scripts of 1 Timothy, all of which have had correctors change the text  in the same way, so that it now explicitly calls Jesus "God. " This be­  came the text of the vast majority of later Byzantine (i. e. , medieval)  manuscripts—and then became the text of most of the early English  translations. Our  earliest  and  most sensible  manuscripts,  however,  communicate  of  Christ  "who" was made manifest in the flesh, without calling Jesus, explic­  itly,  God. The  swap  that  got here  to  dominate  the  medieval  manu­  scripts, then, was made in order to emphasize Jesus's divinity in a text  that was ambiguous about it, at best. This would be an example of an 158  MISQUOTING JESUS  antiadoptionistic change, a textual alteration made to counter a claim  that Jesus was fully human but not himself divine. Other antiadoptionistic changes took place in the manuscripts that  record Jesus's early life in the Gospel of Luke. In one place we are told  that when Joseph and Mary took Jesus to the Temple and the holy  man Simeon blessed him, "his father and mother were marveling at  what was said to him" (Luke 2:33). His father? How could the text  call Joseph Jesus's father if Jesus had been born of a virgin? Not sur­  prisingly, a large number of scribes changed the text to eliminate the  potential problem, by saying "Joseph and his  mother were  marvel­  ing. . . . " Now the text could not be used by an adoptionist Christian  in support of the claim that Joseph was the child's father. A similar phenomenon happens a few verses later in the account of  Jesus as a twelve­year­old in the Temple. The story line  is  familiar:  Joseph, Mary, and Jesus attend a festival in Jerusalem, but then when  the rest of the family heads home in the caravan, Jesus remains behind,  unbeknownst  to  them. As  the  textual content  says,  "his  mom and dad  did  now not  be aware of  about it. " But why does the text speak of his mom and dad when Joseph is not  really his father? A number of textual witnesses "correct" the problem  by having the text read, "Joseph and his mother did not know it. " And  again, some verses later, after they return to Jerusalem to hunt  excessive  and low for Jesus, Mary finds him, three days later, in the Temple. She  upbraids  him: "Your father and I have been looking for you! " Once  again, some scribes solved the problem—this time by simply altering  the text to read "We have been looking for you! "  One of the most intriguing antiadoptionist variants among our manu­  scripts occurs just where one might expect it, in an account of Jesus's  baptism by John, the point at which many adoptionists insisted Jesus  had been chosen by God to be his adopted son. In Luke's Gospel, as in  Mark,  while  Jesus  is  baptized,  the  heavens  open  up,  the  Spirit  de­  scends  upon  Jesus  in  the  shape  of  a  dove,  and  a  voice  comes  from  heaven. But the manuscripts of Luke's Gospel are divided concerning  what exactly the voice said.

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