Download E-books Modern Architecture (Oxford History of Art) PDF

By Alan Colquhoun

Colquhoun, an eminent student within the box of structure, deals the following a brand new account of overseas modernism that explores the complicated motivations in the back of this innovative move and assesses its triumphs and screw ups. The publication makes a speciality of the paintings of the most architects of the circulation equivalent to Frank Lloyd Wright, Adolf bathrooms, Le Corbusier, and Mies van der Rohe, re-examining their paintings and laying off new mild on their roles as said masters. the writer provides a desirable research of structure with reference to politics, expertise, and beliefs, all whereas supplying transparent descriptions of the major parts of the trendy movement.

Colquhoun indicates essentially the evolution of the stream from paintings Nouveau within the Nineties to the mega-structures of the Nineteen Sixties, revealing the often-contradictory calls for of shape, functionality, social engagement, modernity and tradition.

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In Gropius’s structure, notwithstanding, there's something new, and we will get a few thought of it if we evaluate his Fagus manufacturing unit (1911–12) [42, forty three] at Alfeld an der Leine, inbuilt collaboration with Adolf Meyer (1881–1929), with Behrens’s Turbine manufacturing facility. a lot of the variation among the 2 constructions will be attributed to their appreciably diversified programmes. Gropius and Meyer’s small, provincial shoe-last factory—or really its administrative wing, which used to be the one a part of the manufacturing facility complicated over which the architects had complete control—could hardly ever be acknowledged to invoke the world-historical issues of Behrens’s manufacturing unit, inbuilt the nation’s capital for certainly one of Germany’s most vital cartels. but it was once exactly the Fagus Factory’s modesty and absence of symbolic cost that enabled Gropius to persist with his extra down-toearth schedule and to supply a piece which might turn out to be obvious as prophetic of the ‘objective’ (Sachlich) smooth stream of the Twenties. no longer that the construction lacks optical tips. however it not makes any of Behrens’s grandiose symbolic claims. Gropius starts off with Behrens’s projecting bay window and recessed, tilted masonry as his major motifs, yet transforms them. the lean is now, it kind of feels, a practical (though most likely pricey) resolution, by way of which the brick piers can seem to be recessed with no the glazing unit having to be cantilevered out at its sill. while Behrens rhetoricizes his repeating columns, giving them greatest corporeality to create the impact of classical monumentality, Gropius attempts to make his unavoidably significant brick piers disappear, in order that the most façade of his development seems like it's made fullyyt of glass. while Behrens strengthens his corners with illusionistic buttresses, Gropius voids his with genuine transparency. while Behrens impressionistically rounds his corners, Gropius sharpens his with the precision of a surgeon’s knife-cut. eventually, while the Turbine manufacturing unit abounds in overt classical references, the classicism of the Fagus manufacturing facility is unassuming and abstract—a topic of geometry. yet notwithstanding the Fagus manufacturing facility can therefore be learn off opposed to the Turbine manufacturing facility, it's not easily a mannerist inversion; it has its personal schedule. Its illusionism, although nonetheless owing anything to Behrens, is an issue of bringing out the transcendent features of materials—particularly glass with its mystical connotations (see the dialogue of glass symbolism on web page 92)—rather than operating opposed to the character of fabrics as Behrens usually did. during this Gropius was once more true to the ‘functional’ culture of Jugendstil, although he jettisoned so much (if now not all) of its craftsman-like individualism. within the Fagus manufacturing facility, materiality and shape are synthesized in a brand new way—a approach that turns out to teach the influence of the yank factories that Gropius had illustrated tradition and undefined: germany 1907‒14 sixty nine 42 Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer Fagus manufacturing unit, 1911–12, Alfeld an der Leine South-east façade, management wing. This development is a type of polemical reversal of Behrens’s Turbine manufacturing unit.

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